These routines add, subtract and multiply BCD numbers with up to 14-15 digits. The source code is quite commented, so i'll leave it without further discussions.
One small note: This code was originally intended to build a toy-calculator around the stamp. This explains the interface to an LCD for the display, the reference made in code to "keys" and the BCD approach.
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' ************* ' * BCDMATH * ' ************* ' vers. 0.5 ' BCD addition, subtraction and multiplication with ' arbitrary precision for the Basic Stamp II ' Copyright Francesco Bonomi 1996-1998, non-commercial use permitted ' Please send comments, corrections and bugs to email@example.com ' Important constants and variables ' How many digits? digits con 10 ' maximum 16, as nibble variables are used to loop through the digits ' Anyway, if you use multiplication and allocate the multiply buffer ' then you don't have enough memory for 16 digits! ' We have three BCD buffers (most significant digit first) ' Accumulator acc var nib(digits) ' The buffer (keyboard input goes here) buf var nib(digits) ' The multiplication buffer mul var nib(digits) overflow var bit ' True if we had overflow accneg var bit ' True if the accumulator is negative oldneg var bit ' Used to temporarily store the status of accneg ' work variables x var nib y var nib z var nib b var bit l var byte ' used in intermediate calulations, to hold ' the sum/difference between nibbles ' used for parameter passing adigit var nib ' definitions for the LCD panel ' Serial data to the LCD LCD_out con 15 ' data mode for the LCD panel n96n con $4054
' TEST PROGRAM FOR THE BCD SUBROUTINES' fetch a number (1219) in the buffer l=num1 gosub buf_read ' move it in the accumulator gosub clear_acc gosub acc_add ' fetch a second number (500) l=num2 gosub buf_read ' subtract gosub acc_sub ' display the result (1219456-1113412=106044) gosub display_acc ' fetch a third number (2357) in the buffer l=num3 gosub buf_read ' multiply the accumulator times the buffer gosub acc_mul ' display the result (106044*2357=249945708) gosub display_acc end num1 data "1219456:" num2 data "1113412:" num3 data "2357:" ' ************************** ' SUBROUTINES FOLLOW ' **************************
'Subroutine ACC_ABS: Absolute valueACC_ABS ' The accumulator is replaced by its absolute value ' (it is negated if negative) if accneg=1 then ACC_NEG return
'Subroutine ACC_ADD: AdditionACC_ADD ' The buffer is added to the accumulator for x=digits to 1 step 1 l=acc(x)+buf(x) if l<10 then ACC_ADD_next_digit ' we have a carry! the digit becomes 0 l=l-10 ' if this was the first digit, then we have a carry ' out of the most significant digit, otherwise it's ' a normal carry if x>1 then ACC_ADD_normal_carry ' a carry out of the most significant digit ' is an overflow, unless the accumulator was negative, ' (in this case the accumulator goes back to positive) if accneg=1 then ACC_ADD_carry_neg ' mark an overflow gosub SET_ERROR ' and proceed goto ACC_ADD_next_digit ACC_ADD_carry_neg ' the accumulator returns positive accneg=0 ' proceed goto ACC_ADD_next_digit ACC_ADD_normal_carry ' The carry was an ordinary carry, increment ' the digit before acc(x-1)=acc(x-1)+1 ACC_ADD_next_digit acc(x)=l next return
'Subroutine ACC_MUL: MultiplicationACC_MUL ' Multiplies the accumulator by the buffer ' Force the accumulator to positive, but remember ' its old sign, so that we can restore it later ' (as the buffer is always positive, the accumulator ' will keep its old sign after multiplication) oldneg=accneg gosub acc_abs ' Move the buffer in the multiply buffer, ' the accumulator in the buffer and ' clear the accumulator for z=1 to digits mul(z)=buf(z) buf(z)=acc(z) acc(z)=0 next ' we will use b to mark a shift-out condition b=0 for z=digits to 1 if mul(z)=0 then ACC_MUL_skip w var nib w=mul(z) for y=1 to w gosub acc_add ' if we add after a shift-out condition, it's overflow! if b=0 then ACC_MUL_no_over gosub set_error ACC_MUL_no_over next ACC_MUL_skip ' shift the buffer one place up, first checking ' for a shift-out if buf(1)=0 then ACC_MUL_no_shiftout b=1 ACC_MUL_no_shiftout ' shifting up is like pressing a "0" key! adigit=0 gosub digit_key next ' if the accumulator was negative, make it negative again ' by jumping into acc_neg if oldneg then ACC_NEG return
'Subroutine ACC_NEG: NegationACC_NEG ' The accumulator is negated ' (replaced by it's two's complement) for x=1 to digits-1 acc(x)=9-acc(x) next acc(digits)=10-acc(digits) accneg=1-accneg return
'Subroutine ACC_SUB: SubtractionACC_SUB ' The buffer is subtracted from the accumulator ' b is used as a borrow flag b=0 for x=digits to 1 step 1 l=acc(x)-buf(x)-b b=0 ' did we have a borrow? if l<128 then ACC_SUB_next_digit ' Yes! remeber the borrow, and bring l in positiveness again b=1 l=l+10 ACC_SUB_next_digit acc(x)=l next ' Do we have a borrow over the most significant digit? if b=0 then ACC_SUB_exit ' then, if the accumulator was positive it becomes negative, ' otherwise it is an underflow! if accneg then SET_ERROR accneg=1 ACC_SUB_exit return
'Subroutine BUF_READ: Read a constant from EEPROM in the bufferBUF_READ ' reads a constant from EEPROM in the buffer ' the constant is pointed by l (a byte variable, this ' limits to 256 bytes of constants, but can be changed) ' and is stored as a decimal string terminated with ":", ' like in num data "12345678:" gosub clear_buf BUF_READ_loop read l, adigit ' VERY DIRTY trick: a character "0" is stored in memory ' as ASCII 48 (hex $30). In a normal computer, after ' having read the ascii code, we would have to subtract ' 48 from the value, to obtain its numeric value. ' Here, I declared adigit as a nibble variable (4 bits) ' and this means that hex $30 is automatically truncated ' to $0, i.e., the conversion is automatic. The same holds ' for the other digits: character "1" is ASCII 49 (hex $31) ' that gets truncated to $1. The terminating colon ":", ' ASCII 58 (hex $3A) is truncated to $A, and this is what ' gets checked below: if adigit=$A then BUF_READ_exit gosub digit_key l=l+1 goto BUF_READ_loop BUF_READ_exit return
'Subroutine CLEAR_ACC: Clear AccumulatorCLEAR_ACC ' Clears the accumulator for x=1 to DIGITS acc(x)=0 next accneg=0 return
'Subroutine CLEAR_BUF: Clear BufferCLEAR_BUF ' Clears the buffer for x=1 to DIGITS buf(x)=0 next return
'Subroutine DIGIT_KEY: Store a digit in the bufferDIGIT_KEY ' The last key pressed (if any) goes ' in the low-order nibble, and the ' buffer is shifted upwards. ' Originally meant in the calculator to handle the ' pressure of a key, also used by ACC_MUL and BUF_READ ' to shift the buffer up. ' if this would cause an overflow, does nothing and exits if buf(1)>0 then DIGIT_KEY_over for x=1 to digits-1 buf(x)=buf(x+1) next buf(digits)=adigit DIGIT_KEY_over: return
'Subroutine SET_ERROR: Set an error conditionSET_ERROR overflow=1 serout LCD_out, n96n, 5, [254,1,"ERROR"] debug "ERROR", cr return
'Subroutine DISPLAY_ACC: display AccumulatorDISPLAY_ACC ' Display the accumulator ' the value is displayed on the PC screen (with DEBUG) AND on a ' LCD panel (with SEROUT) ' in real life, remove the useless DEBUG instrucions! if overflow=1 then DISPLAY_ACC_exit ' clear the LCD display serout LCD_out, n96n, [254,1] : pause 10 ' If the accumulator is negative, write ' a '-', and temporarily negate the accumulator oldneg=0 if accneg=0 then DISPLAY_ACC_no_minus debug "-" serout LCD_out, n96n, ["-"] oldneg=accneg gosub acc_abs DISPLAY_ACC_no_minus ' we will use b to mark if we have displayed any digit ' yet, for trailing-zero suppression b=0 for x = 1 to digits adigit = acc(x) ' Trailing zero suppression: ' the current digit must be displayed if ' 1) it is greater than 0, if adigit>0 then DISPLAY_ACC_display_a_digit ' 2) it is a 0, but we have already displayed ' some digits, i.e. it is not a trailing 0 if b=0 then DISPLAY_ACC_next_digit DISPLAY_ACC_display_a_digit serout LCD_out, n96n, [dec adigit] debug dec adigit b=1 DISPLAY_ACC_next_digit next ' If the accumulator was 0, and we suppress the trailing zeroes, ' then we will have suppressed ALL the zeroes, and nothing ' gets printed. If nothing has still been printed, print ' at least a '0' if b=1 then DISPLAY_ACC_exit serout LCD_out, n96n, ["0"] debug "<0>" DISPLAY_ACC_exit debug cr ' before exiting, make the accumulator negative ' again if it was negative if oldneg=0 then DISPLAY_ACC_no_negate gosub acc_neg DISPLAY_ACC_no_negate return